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Research Listings

Listings of these articles is simply an Overview of some of the past and current literature on humor, health, and healing that has been generously given to us for our review. Listings of these articles does not imply endorsement or approval by Rx Laughter or by any entity directly associated with Rx Laughter.

"Always laugh when you can. It is cheap medicine." - Lord Byron



Research Listings

We are updating this Reference List to include research about positive emotion & humor that was published after 2000. These articles will have a star in front of them. If you know of any that are not listed here, please email the info to ContactRxLaughter@gmail.com and type "Executive Director" in the subject line so that we can include it for students, researchers, and the general public. Thank you so much.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H-I | J-K | L | M | N | O-P | Q-R | S | T-V | W | X-Z

Adams, Elizabeth R., and Francis A. McGuire. "Is Laughter the Best Medicine?" A Study of the Effects of Humor on Perceived Pain and Affects."Activities, Adaptation, and Ageing. 1986: 157-75.

Adelstein, Willa. "Care of the Unconscious Patient" Journal of Nursing Jocularity 2.4 (1992): 20-24.

Andersen, Heather A. "Wellness Strategies: Humor." ANAC's Core Curriculum for HIV'Aids Nursing. Eds. K. M. Casey, F. Cohen, and A. Hughes. Philadelphia, PA: Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 353-355.

Aring, C. D. "A Sense of Humor." Journal of the American Medical Association 215.13 (1971): 2099.

Astedt, P., and A. Liukkonen. "Humor in Nursing-Care." Journal of Advanced Nursing." 20.1 (1994): 183-188.

Averill, J. R. "Autonomic Response Patterns During Sadness and Mirth." Psychophysiology 5.4 (1969): 399-414.

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Bellert, J. L. "Humor: A Therapeutic Approach in Oncology Nursing." Cancer Nursing 12 (1989): 65-70.

Benham, K. J. The Relationship of Leadership Style, Change, and Use of Humor in Health Care Executives Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Spokane,WA: Gonzaga University, 1993.

Bennett, Howard J. ed. The Best of Medical Humor. Philadelphia: Hanley and Belfus, 1991.

Berger, Arthur Asa. "Funnies Are Good for Us: Healthful Benefits of Humorous Comic Strips." The World and I (May, 1992): 659-668.

Berger, Arthur Asa. "Healing with Humor." An Anatomy of Humor. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1993, 155-162.

Berk, Lee S., Stanley A. Tan, W. F. Fry, B. J. Napier, J. W. Lee, R. W. Hubbard, J. E. Lewis, and W. C. Eby. "Neuroendrocrine and Stress Hormone Changes During Mirthful Laughter." American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 298.6 (1989): 390-396.

Berk, L.S., et al, Immune System Changes During Humor Associated Laughter, Clinical Research. Vol. 39, 1991, (p.124A).

Bihn, Patti. "Starting a Humor Cart." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 5.2
(1995): 32-34.

Black, D. "Laughter." Journal of the American Medical Association 252
(1984): 2995-2997.

Black, D. "Pathological Laughter." Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 170.2 (1982): 67-71.

Blair, W. "What's Funny about Doctors." Perspect Biol Med 21 (1977): 89-98.

Bombeck, Erma. I Want to Grow Hair, I Want to Grow Up, I Want to Go to Boise: Children Surviving Cancer. New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1989.

Brallier, Jess M. Medical Wit and Wisdom. Philadelphia, PA: Running Press 1993.

Brownell, Hiram H., and Howard Gardner. "Neuropsychological Insights into Humour." Laughing Matters: A Serious Look at Humour. Eds. John Durant and Jonathan Miller. NY: Longman, 1988, 17-34.

Buckwalter, K. C., L. A. Gerdner, G. R. Stolley, J. M. Kudart, and S. Ridgeway. "Shining Through: The Humor and Individuality of Persons with Alzheimer's Disease." Journal of Gerontology Nursing 21.3 (1995): 11-16.

Buffum, M., and M. Brod. "Humor and Well-Being in Spouse Caregivers of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease." Applied Nursing Research 11.1 (1998): 12-18.

Bush, Anita. "How to Read Nursing Employment Ads." Journal of Nursing
Jocularity 2.4 (1992): 8-9.

Bush, Anita. "The Inevitable Questions." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 4.1
(1994): 32-33.

Bush, L. K., C. L. Barr, G. J. McHugo, and J. T. Lanzetta. "Effects of Facial Control and Facial Mimicry on Subjective Reactions Comedy Routines." Motivation and Emotion 13.1 (1989): 31-52.

Buxman, Karyn. "Emergency Stat: Nintendo Overdose." Journal of Nursing
Jocularity 3.2 (1993): 22-25.

Buxman, Karyn. "HumoRx" Journal of Nursing Jocularity 4.1 (1994): 44-45.

Buxman, Karyn. "Humor as Folklore." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 5.2
(1995): 44-45.

Buxman, Karyn, and Anne LeMoine, eds. Nursing Perspectives on Humor. Staton Island, NY: Power Publications, 1995.

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Carroll, James L. "The Relationship between Humor Appreciation and Perceived Physical Health." Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior 27.2 (1990): 34-37.

Carroll, James L., and Jerry L. Schmidt. "Correlation between Humorous Coping Style and Health." Psychological Reports 70.2 (1992): 402.

Carlisle, Daloni. "Comic Relief." Nursing Times. 86.38 (1990): n.p.

Carlyon, W., and P. Carlyon. "Humor as a Health Education Tool." The Handbook of Health Education. Eds. P. M. Lazes, L. H. Kaplan, and K. A. Gordon. Rockville, MD: Aspen, 1987, 111-21.

Castle, Ilene, and Christine May. "Establishing a Laughter Room in a Rural Hospital." Australian Journal of Comedy Eds. Gerard Matte and Jessica Milner Davis. 3.1 (1997): 134-139.

Chandler, Marilyn R. "Healthy Irreverence: Humor in Stories of Illness." Humor: International Journal of Humor Research 1.3 (1988): 299-306.

Cogan,R. Cogan, D. Waltz,W., & McCue, M (1967). Effects of laughter and relaxation on discomfort thresholds. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 10(2) 139-144.

Coser, Rose L. "Some Social Functions of Laughter: A Study of Humour in a Hospital Setting." Human Relations 12 (1959): 171-182.

Cousins, Norman. Anatomy of an Illness as Perceived by the Patient. New York: W. W. Norton, 1979.

Cousins, Norman. "The Laughter Prescription." The Saturday Evening Post. October, 1990: 34ff.

Cushner, F. D., and R. J. Friedman. "Humor and the Physician." Southern Medical Journal 82.1 (1989): 51-52.

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D'Antonio, Irma J. "The Use of Humor with Children in Hospital Settings." Humor and Children's Development. Ed. Paul McGhee. NY: Haworth, 1989, 157-71.

Dale, J. Alexander, Mary A. Hudak, and Paula Wasikowski. "Effects of Dyadic Participation and Awareness of Beingg Monitored on Facial Action during Exposure to Humor." Perceptual and Motor Skills 73.3 (1991): 984-986.

Dean, R. A. "Humor and Laughter in Palliative Care." Journal of Palliative
Care 13.1 (1997): 34-39.

Derks, Peter, Lynn S. Gillikin, Debbie S. Bartolome-Rull, and Edward H.
Bogart. "Laughter and Electroencephalographic Activity." HUMOR:
International Journal of Humor Research 10.3 (1997): 285-300.

DesCamp, Karen D., and Cher C. Thomas. "Buffering Nursing Stress through Play at Work." Western Journal of Nursing Research 15.5 (1993): 619-627.

Dillon, K., ,Minchoff, B., & Baker,K (1985). Positive emotional states and enhancement of the immune system. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 15(1). 13-17.

Ditlow, Florence. "The Missing Element in Health Care: Humor as a Form of Creativity." Journal of Holistic Nursing. 11.1 (March, 1993): 66-79.

Donnelly, Pauline. "Climbing to the Top." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 3.2
(1993): 12-15.

Donnelly, Pauline. "How to Be a Crack-er Nurse." Journal of Nursing
Jocularity 4.1 (1994): 6-8.

Dossey, Larry. "`How You Are Fit to Live': Humor and Health." Alternative Therapies 2.5 (1996): 8-100.

Duffy, John. From Humors to Medical Science: A History of American
. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Dugan, Daniel O. "Laughter and Tears: Best Medicine for Stress." Nursing Forum 24.1 (1989): 18-26.

Dundes, Alan. "At Ease Disease--AIDS Jokes as Sick Hu-mor." Amer-ican Behavioral Scientist January/Feb-ruary, 1987: 72-81.

Durham, Chuck. Humor, Hypnosis and Health Quarterly 2.1-4 (1988), 3.1-4
(1989), 4.1-4 (1990), 5.1-2 (1991)

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Edson, Carol. "Which Way to the Hospital?" Journal of Nursing Jocularity
3.2 (1993): 6-9.

Ekman, P., R. J. Davidson, and D. Salais. "Duchenne Smile: Emotional
Expression and Brain Physiology II
." Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology. 58 (1990): 342-353.

Ekman,P.. Levenson,R., & Friesen,W. (1983). Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes among emotions. Science. 222(4616). 1208-1210.

Erdman, Lynn. "Laughter Therapy for Patients with Cancer." Journal of
Psychosocial Oncology 11.4 (1993): 55-67.

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Felson, B. "Humor and Medicine." Semin Roentgen 22.3 (1987): 141-43.

Ferguson, Stephanie, and Joseph Campinha-Pacote. "Humor in Nursing."
Journal of Psychosocial Nursing 27.4 (1989): 29-34.

Fishbein, Morris. Tonics and Sedatives. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott,

Francis, Betty. "Laughing Sprites" Journal of Nursing Jocularity 2.4
(1992): 14-15.

Francis, Betty. "Silly Superior-ISMS" Journal of Nursing Jocularity 3.2
(1993): 10.

Frankl, V.E., Man's Search for Meaning, Beacon Press, Boston, 1959.

Fry, William F. "The Biology of Humor." HUMOR: International Journal of
Humor Research 7.2 (1994): 111-126.

Fry, William F. "Humor and the Cardiovascular System." The Study of Humor: Proceedings of the 2nd International Humor Conference. Eds. H. Mindess and J. Turek. Los Angeles: Antioch College, 1979, 56-61.

Fry, William F. "Humor, Physiology, and the Aging Process." Humor and
Aging. Eds. Lucille Nahemow, Katthleen McCluskey-Fawcett, and Paul McGhee. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1986, 81-98.

Fry, William F. "Laughter and Health." Encyclopaedia Britannica Medical and Health Annual (1984): 259-262.

Fry, William F. "Laughter: Is It the Best Medicine?" Stanford M.D. 10
(1971): 16-20.

Fry, William F. "Mirth and Oxygen Saturation of Peripheral Blood."
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 19 (1971): 76-84.

Fry, William F. "The Physiologic Effects of Humor, Mirth, and Laughter."
Journal of the American Medical Association 267.13 (1992): 1857-1858.

Fry, William F. "Prince Hamlet and Professor Koch." Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 40.3 (1997), 419-425.

Fry, William F. "The Respiratory Components of Mirthful Laughter." The
Journal of Biological Psychology 19 (1977): 39-50.

Fry, William F., and William M. Savin. "Mirthful Laughter and Blood
." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 1.1 (1988): 49-62.

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Gallo, Nick. "Lighten Up: Laugh Your Way to Good Health." Better Homes and Gardens August, 1989: 31-32.

Garden, Graeme. The Best Medicine. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1984.

Gehring, Patsy. "Confessions of a Camp Nurse." Journal of Nursing
Jocularity 5.2 (1995): 12-13.

Gelkopf, M., and M. Sigal. "It is not Enough to have them Laugh: Hostility, Anger, and Humor-Coping in Schizophrenic Patients." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 8.3 (1995): 273-284.

Gelkopf, M., M. Sigal, and R. Kramer. "Therapeutic Use of Humor to Improve Social Support in an Institutionalized Schizophrenic Inpatient Community." Journal of Social Psychology 134.2 (1994): 175-182.

George, M.S., et al, Brain Activity During Transient Sadnes and Happiness in Healthy Women, American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 152, #3, 1995, (pp.341-351).

Gibson, Leslie M. Healthy Humor. Clearwater, FL: Morton Plant Hospital,

Gigliotti, E. "Let Me Entertain...er...Teach You: Gaining Attention through the Use of Slide Shows." Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing. 26 (1995): 31-34.

Gilliatt, Penelope. To Wit: Skin and Bones of Comedy. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1990.

Gillies, Pamela A., Ann Stork, and Mandy Bretman. "Streetwize UK: A
Controlled Trial of an AIDS Education Comic
." Health Education Research 5.1 (1990): 27-33.

Gillikan, Lynn S., and Peter L. Derks. "Humor Appreciation and Mood in
Stroke Patients
." Cognitive Rehabilitation. 9.5 (1991): 30-35.

Goodman, Joel. "Head First: The Biology of Hope: Norman Cousins Lightens and Enlightens." Laughing Matters 7.2 (1990): 56-69.

Goodman, Joel. "Love, Laughter and Miracles: A Prescription from Bernie
." Laughing Matters 6.4 (1990): 127-139.

Goren, Kathleen J. "The Role of Humor in Health." Unpublished MA Thesis. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University, 1990.

Gullickson, Colleen. "Cancer Prevention--A Female Perspective." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 2.4 (1992): 6.

Gullickson, Colleen. "Flatometer II--No More Guessing: Advances in Nursing Technology." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 4.1 (1994): 14-15.

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Hageseth, Christian III. "Forbidden Humor is Not Necessarily Negative
." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 2.4 (1992): 42-43.

Haig, Robin Andrew. The Anatomy of Humor: Biopsychosocial and Therapeutic Perspectives. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1988.

Hall, Dennis. "No Laughing Matter: Values, Perception, and the Demise of AIDS Jokes." Journal of American Culture 16.2 (1993): 25-30.

Harrison, N. "Using Humour as an Educational Technique." Professional
Nurse. 11 (1995): 198-199.

Hawkins, Clifford, ed. Alimentary, My Dear Doctor: Medical Anecdotes and Humour. Oxford: Radcliffe Medical Press, 1988.

Hillman, S. M. "Laugh and Learn: Humor in Nursing Education." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 5 (1995): 32-34.

Hohn, Tom. "Iso-Suit." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 3.2 (1993): 21.

Holden, Robert. Laughter--The Best Medicine. London, England: Thorsons, 1995.

Holmes, Mycroft. "Why are Computers Better than Sick Folks?" Journal of Nursing Jocularity 3.2 (1993): 11.

Hubert, Walter, Mathilde Moller, Renate de Jong-Meyer. "Film-induced
Amusement Changes in Saliva Cortisol Levels
." Psychoneuroendocrinology 18.4 (1993): 265-272.

Hunt, A. H. "Humor as a Nursing Intervention." Cancer Nursing 16 (1993):

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Jarcho, S. "Some Hoaxes in the Medical Literature." Bull Hist Med 33.4
(1959): 342-47.

Johnson, A. Michael. "A Study of Humor and the Right Hemisphere."
Perceptual and Motor Skills 70.3 (1990): 995-1002.

Johnston, Robert A. "Humor: A Preventive Health Strategy." International
Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 13.2 (July, 1990): 257-265.

Kamei, T., H. Kumano, and S. Masumura. "Changes of Immunoregulatory Cells Associated with Physiological Stress and Humor." Perceptual and Motor Skills 3.2 (1997): 1296-1298.

Katz, Bruce F. "A Neural Resolution of the Incongruity-Resolution and
Incongruity Theories of Humor
." Connection Science: Journal of Neural
Computing, Artificial Intelligence, and Cognitive Research 5.1 (1993):

Kiefer, Frances. "S.L.S." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 4.1 (1994): 12-13.

Kirkland, John, Michael Mair, and Michael Couzens. "An Anatomical and
Psychological Examination of Eye-Pouches
." It's a Funny Thing, Humour. Eds. Antony Chapman and Hugh Foot. NY: Pergamon, 1977, 451-53.

Klein, Allen. The Courage to Laugh: Humor, Hope, and Healing in the Face of Death and Dying. New York, NY: Tarcher/Putnam, 1998.

Klein, Allen. The Healing Power of Humor. Los Angeles, CA: Jeremy P.
Tarcher, 1989.

Klein, Allen. "The Lighter Side of Death and Dying: Listening for
." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 4.1 (1994): 10-11.

Kravitz, Susan. "The B.O.N.I.--Burn Out Nurse Inventory." Journal of
Nursing Jocularity 2.4 (1992): 16-19.

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Langevin, Ronald, and H. I. Day. "Physiological Correlates of Humor." The Psychology of Humor. Eds Jeffrey Goldstein and Paul McGhee. NY: Academic Press, 1972, 129-42.

Lefcourt, Herbert M., Karina Davidson-Katz, and Karen Kueneman. "Humor and Immune-System Functioning." Humor: International Journal of Humor Research 3.3 (1990): 305-322.

Lefcourt, H.M. & Martin, R.A., Humor and Life Stress: Antidote to Adversity, Springer-Verlag, N.Y., N.Y., 1986 (p. 99).

Leise, C. M. "The Correlation between Humor and the Chronic Pain of
." Journal of Holistic Nursing 11.1 (1993): 82-95.

Liechty, R. D. "Humor and the Surgeon." Arch Surg 122.5 (1987): 519-22.

Lindsey, Douglas, and J. Benjamin. "Humor in the Emergency Room." The Study of Humor Eds. Harvey Mindess and Joy Turek. Los Angeles: Antioch College, 1979, 73-76.

Ljungdahl, L. "Laugh if This is a Joke." JAMA 261.4 (1989): 558.

Long, Patricia. "Laugh and be Well?" Psychology Today (October, 1987):

Lyons, Michael W. "Five Minutes with Sandy Mooney." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 2.4 (1992): 12.

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McDonald, S. "Neuropsychological Studies of Sarcasm." Metaphor and Symbol 15.1-2 (2000): 85-98.

McGhee, Paul E. The Laughter Remedy: Health, Healing, and the Amuse System. Randolph, NJ: The Laughter Remedy, 1991.

Mallett, Jane. "The Use of Humour and Laughter in Patient Care." British
Journal of Nursing. 2 (1993): 172-175.

Mandell, H. N. "Frivolity in Medicine: Is There a Place for it?" Postgrad
Med 83.8 (1988): 24-28.

Martin, Rod A., J. P. Dobbin, et. al., "Sense of Humor, Hassles, and Immunoglubulin A: Evidence for a Stress-Moderating Effect of Humor." International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 18.2 (1988): 93-105.

Martin, R.A. & Lefcourt, H.M., Sense of Humor as a Moderator Between Stressors and Moods, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 45, 1983, (pp. 1313-1324).

Matz, A. Brown, "Humor and Pain Management." Journal of Holistic Nursing. 16.1 (1998): 68-75.

Meyer, Peter. Medicalese: A Humorous Medical Dictionary. Wilmington, NC: Avian-Cetacean Press, 1995.

Miller, C. J. "Total Care." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 2.4 (1992): 7.

Miller, J., Jokes and Joking: A Serious Laughing Matter, in Durant, J. & Miller, J. Eds., Laughing Matters: A Serious Look at Humor, Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex, England, 1988, (pp. 5-16).

Miller, T. P. "Humor--The Triumph of Reason." Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29.4 (1986): 545-559.

Moody, Raymond A., Jr. Laugh after Laugh: The Healing Power of Humor. Jacksonville, FL: Headwaters Press, 1978.

Morreall, John. "Chapter 3: "Laugh for the Health of It." Humor Works.
Amherst, MA: HRD Press, 1997, 49-58.

Moses, N. W., and M. M. Friedman. "Using Humor in Evaluating Student
." Journal of Nursing Education 25 (1986): 328-333.

Mould, Richard F. Mould's Medical Anecdotes. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis, 1984.

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Nevo, Ofra, Giora Keinan, and Mina Teshimovsky-Arditi. "Humor and Pain
." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 6.1 (1993):

Nevo, Ofra, and Joseph Shapira. "The Use of Humor by Pediatric Dentists." Humor and Children's Development. Ed. Paul McGhee. NY: Haworth, 1989, 171-78.

Nezu, A. M., C. M. Nezu, and S. E. Blissett. "Sense of Humor as a Moderator of the Relation between Stressful Events and Psychological Distress: A Prospective Analysis." Journal of Personal and Social Psychology 54.3 (1988): 520-525.

Nias, David K. B., and Glenn D. Wilson. "A Genetic Analysis of Humour
." It's a Funny Thing, Humour. Eds. Antony Chapman and Hugh Foot. NY: Pergamon, 1977, 371-74.

Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen "Health and Healing.".
Encyclopedia of Humor and Comedy. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 2000, 142-145.

Nilsen, Don L. F. "Humor and Health." The Creative Child and Adult
Quarterly. 16.4 (1994): 245-249.

Nilsen, Don L. F. "Humor and Medicine." Humor Scholarship: A Research
Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1993, 15-20.

Nilsen, Don L. F. "The Physiological Functions of Humor." Humor
Scholarship: A Research Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1993,

Noland, Jane Thomas. Laugh It Off: The New "Humor Strategy" of Weight Loss. Minneapolis, MN: Comp Care Publishers, 1991.

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O'Neal, Joyce. "Vic." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 3.2 (1993): 16-19.

Ober, William B. Bottoms Up! A Pathologist's Essays on Medicine and the
Humanities. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ Press, 1987.

Ornstein, Robert, and David Sobel. Healthy Pleasures. NY: Addison-Wesley, 1989.

Parkin, C. J. "Humor, Health, and Higher Education: Laughing Matters."
Journal of Nursing Education 28 (1989): 229-230.

Parrott, T. E. "Humor as a Teaching Strategy." Nurse Educator 19 (1994):

Parse, R. R. "Laughing and Health--A Study Using Parse Research Method." Nursing Science Quarterly 123.2 (1994): 129-145.

Pease, R. A. "Cartoon Humor in Nursing Education." Nursing Outlook 39.6
(1991): 262-267.

Perlmutter, Kathy. "Comic Relief." Prevention 40 (1988): 38-44.

Peterson, Karen E. "The Use of Humor in AIDS Prevention, in the Treatment of HIV-Positive Persons, and in the Remediation of Caregiver Burnout." AIDS Prevention and Treatment: Hope, Humor, and Healing. New York: Hemisphere, 1992, 37-57.

Porterfield, Albert L. "Does Sense of Humor Moderate the Impact of Life
Stress on Psychological and Physiological Well-Being?
" Journal of Research in Personality 21 (1987): 306-317.

Prerost, Frank J., and Christine Ruma. "Exposure to Humorous Stimuli As An Adjunct to Muscle Relaxation Training." Psychology: A Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior 24.4 (1987): 70-74.

Prerost, Frank J. "Health, Locus of Control, Humor, and Reduction in
." Psychological Reports December, 1987, 887-896.

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Rakel, R. E. "Humor and Humanism." Houston Med 5.1 (1989): 7-9

Reece, R. L. "Humor in Scientific Medical Writing." Minn Med 51.4 (1968):

Rivellini, Denise. "I Love Being a Mommy...." Journal of Nursing Joculari=
ty 3.2 (1993): 28-31.

Robbins, J. "Using Humor to Enhance Learning in the Skills Laboratory."
Nurse Educator 19 (1994): 39-41.

Roberts, Ted. "Meet Mr. Nightingale." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 3.2
(1993): 26-27.

Robinson, Vera M. "Humor and Health." Handbook of Humor Research. Volume 2, Eds. Paul McGhee and Jeffrey Goldstein. NY: Springer-Verlag, 1983, 109-28.

Robinson, Vera M. Humor and the Health Professions. 2nd Edition. Thorofare, NJ: Slack, 1991.

Robinson, Vera M. "Humor is Serious Business." Dimens Crit Care Nurs 5.3
(1986): 132-33.

Rodning, C. B. "Humor and Healing: A Creative Process." Pharos 51.3 (1988): 38-40.

Roland, G. C. "Thoughts about Medical Writing: Can it be Funny and
" Anesth Analg 50.2 (1971): 229-30.

Rooda, Linda A. "Surviving Two Decades of Nursing Students." Journal of
Nursing Jocularity 4.1 (1994): 26-28.

Rosenberg, Lisa. "A Qualitative Investigation of the Use of Humor by
Emergency Personnel as a Strategy for Coping with Stress
." Journal of
Emergency Nursing 17 (1991): 197-203.

Ryan, Cynthia A. "Reclaiming the Body: The Subversive Possibilities of
Breast Cancer Humor
." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Studies 10.2 (1997): 187-206.

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Sangrik, Andrea A. "Mental Health Nursing." Journal of Nursing Jocularity
5.2 (1995): 9-11.

Sangrik, Andrea H. "Real Reasons Nurses Call in Sick." Journal of Nursing Jocularity 2.4 (1992): 26-41.

Saper, Bernie. "Humor and Healing." Psychiatric Times. 10.5 (May, 1993):

Saper, Bernie. "Humor in Psychiatric Healing." Psychiatric Quarterly 59
(1988): 306-619.

Satin, W. "The Last Laugh." Diabetes Forecast (February, 1989): 41-42.

Scarlett, E. P. "Some Hoaxes in Medical History and Literature." Arch Int
Med 113.2 (1964): 291-96.

Schachter, S., and L. Wheeler. "Epinephrine, Chlorpromazine, and
." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 65.2 (1962): 121-28.

Scheff, T. J. Catharsis in Healing, Ritual, and Drama. Berkeley: Univ of
California Press, 1979.

Segal, D. "Playing Doctor Seriously: Graduation Follies at an American
Medical School
." Int J Health Serv 14.3 1984 379-96.

Seligson, M. Ross, and Karen E. Peterson, eds. AIDS Prevention and
Treatment: Hope, Humor, and Healing
. New York: Hemisphere, 1992.

Shea, U. "The Perception of Faculty and Students Concerning the Use of
Humor in Nursing Education.
" Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts, 1991.

Shepherd, Robert, and Herbert M. Lefcourt. "Death Attitudes and Humor:
Taking a Different Perspective on Organ Donation
." Organ Donation and
Transplantation: Psychological and Behavioral Factors. Eds. James Shanteau, Richard Jackson Harris. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1992, 50-58.

Shostek, Kathleen M. "Nursing Care Plan: Potential for Injury...." Journal
of Nursing Jocularity 2.4 (1992): 13.

Silberman, I. N. "Humor and Health: An Epidemiological Study." American
Behavioral Scientist 30.3 (1987): 100-112.

Silverstein, Stuart. "Mix Humor with Medicine." California Physician (June, 1991): 44-47.

Simon, Jolene J. "Humor and its Relationship to Perceived Health, Life
Satisfaction, and Morale in Older Adults
." Issues in Mental Health Nursing 11.1 (1990): 17-31.

Smadja, Eric. "Fabrication du Rire." La Gazette Medicale 98.25 (1991):
43-44. Smadja, Eric. "Les Arcanes du Rire." La Gazette Medicale 98.25 (1991): 5-6.

Smadja, Eric. "Le Rire et Les Philosophes." La Gazette Medicale 98.25
(1991): 7-8.

Smadja, Eric. "Un Rire ou des Rires? Ethologie du Rire." La Gazette
Medicale 98.25 (1991): 9-12.

Smadja, Eric. "Le Rire de l'Enfant (Ontogen=E8se du Rire)." La Gazette
Medicale 98.25 (1991): 13-16.

Smadja, Eric. "Le Rire dans le Monde Animal (Phylogen=E8se du Rire)." La Gazette Medicale 98.25 (1991): 17-20.

Smadja, Eric. "Les Rires Patologiques." La Gazette Medicale 98.25 (1991):

Stearley, Harold E. "New Gadgets for the 90's." Journal of Nursing
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